What is the product rule in forensic science?
The product rule states that one must first determine the probability of each characteristic occurring separately, then multiply together the frequencies of all independently occurring characteristics. The result is the overall frequency of occurrence for that particular combination of characteristics.
Why is the product rule used in forensics?
The product rule states that multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring facts allows one to determine an overall frequency of occurrence for that combination of factors. The product rule can be used to show the likelihood of two pieces of evidence containing the exact same set of characteristics.
What is the 1/3 rule in forensic science?
murder in the first degree: premeditated, afterthought. 2. second degree: not premeditated, afterthought. 3. 3rd degree: accident, no intention of killing someone.
What are the three as of forensic methodology?
Acquisition (without altering or damaging), Authentication (that recovered evidence is the exact copy of the original data), and Analysis (without modifying) are the three main steps of computer forensic investigations.
Which statement accurately describes the product rule?
Which statement accurately describes the product rule? The overall frequency of occurrence of an event, such as a match between two substances, can be obtained by multiplying together the frequencies of all independently occurring instances related to that event.
How do you calculate product rule in forensics?
In most cases, a “product rule” calculation can be done by multiplying each individual probability together. Thus the frequency of the profile is 0.01 x 0.02 x 0.06 x 0.10 x 0.03 = 3.6 x 108. Another way to express this probability is take the reciprocal of this number, 1/3.6 x 108 = 27.8 million.
What is manufactured evidence?
Fabricated Evidence is fictitious testimony or documents offered to a court or jury in order to mislead them. Fabricating evidence involves arranging or manufacturing circumstances or indica, after the act is committed with the intention to use them as evidence and make it appear accidental.
How is charred debris packaged?
Charred debris from an arson scene should be: packaged in air tight glass jar.
What are three forensic databases?
Forensic Databases: Paint, Shoe Prints, and Beyond
- Integrated Ballistic Identification System: IBIS. …
- Paint Data Query: PDQ. …
- National Automotive Paint File. …
- Glass Evidence Reference Database. …
- TreadMark™ …
- SoleMate. …
- Forensic Information System for Handwriting: FISH. …
- International Ink Library.
What is the 3R rule used for?
The three R’s stands for: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. This rule is part of the waste hierarchy which is a process used to protect the environment and conserve resources through a priority approach. The aim is to get the most practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
How is the product rule applies to DNA profiling?
The product rule is used to estimate the chance of finding a given STR profile within a population. This is done by multiplying the frequency of each of the genotypes (combination of alleles) found at all loci in the STR profile.
What are Iafis and codis?
What are IAFIS and CODIS? … Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System, a national fingerprint and criminal history database maintained by the FBI.